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Glands And Glandular Organs Of The Endocrine System

Written by: Deanna Goodson, Executive Contributor

Executive Contributors at Brainz Magazine are handpicked and invited to contribute because of their knowledge and valuable insight within their area of expertise.


It’s important to note that hormones affect every tissue and organ in the body. Hormones, for those of you who don’t know, are chemical messengers that are produced by glands in the body. The endocrine system, therefore, is a collection of endocrine glands that produce hormones as chemical messengers throughout the body. These hormones regulate all of the body’s vital processes including metabolism, growth, sleep and reproduction.

female doctor holding graphic virtual visualization model of Thyroid Gland organ in hands.

In this article, we’re going to go over the different endocrine glands and discuss the hormones they produce.

  • Adrenal Glands – These are located above the kidneys and function to control our stress responses. They generate the following hormones – Cortisol, Norepinephrine and Epinephrine, aka adrenalin, and Aldosterone. The adrenal glands also create some of our sex hormones.

  • Hypothalamus appears in the brain above the pituitary gland. It is part of several different signaling pathways and is known as a ‘hormone conductor.’ The hypothalamus serves as a liaison between the nervous and endocrine systems. By the generation of neurohormones, it signals the pituitary gland to secrete hormones.

  • Ovaries are glandular organs located in the pelvis, above the uterus and only appear in women. They produce sex hormones in response to messages from the pituitary gland. Estrogen and progesterone are the hormonal products of the ovaries.

  • The pancreas is in the abdomen, below the stomach. It helps to maintain blood sugar levels and produces Insulin, which reduces blood sugar, and Glucagon, which raises it. Diabetics have trouble processing and generating enough Insulin, leading to a host of related health problems including heart disease, high blood pressure and even death in some cases.

  • Parathyroid glands are located behind the thyroid in the neck. The parathyroid glands regulate calcium levels and are responsible for bone health, muscle contraction and nerves. The parathyroid, unsurprisingly produces parathyroid hormone (PTH).

  • Our pineal gland is part of our brain. It converts signals from the nervous system into hormones and plays a big role in sexual development. Melatonin, which is the primary sleep hormone, is produced by the pineal gland.

  • The pituitary gland is the superstar of the endocrine glands. It’s located in the brain, under the hypothalamus, which we mentioned earlier on in this article. Like the hypothalamus, the pituitary is also part of several different signaling pathways. Known as the ‘master gland’, the pituitary produces hormones that control other parts of the endocrine system. The anterior lobe produces and released hormones while the posterior lobe releases hypothalamus-derived hormones. Many different hormones are created by the pituitary gland including the Adrenocorticotropic hormone (aka ACTH), which impacts adrenal function and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH), which sets the thyroid on the path to do its important work.

  • Thyroid Gland is located in the front of the neck and controls every part of human metabolism. It produces Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3). In order to do so, iodine is required. Iodine is often created in the system via the diet when we consume iodized salt.

  • Thymus gland – This gland is behind the sternum and it is part of the immune system. It is only active until puberty. Thymosin is created in this gland and it stimulates white blood Tcell production.

  • Testes are glandular organs in the external male genitalia. The testes produce sex hormones in response to messages received by the pituitary gland. The hormones they create are known as androgens such as testosterone.

As you can see, the endocrine glands and the hormones they produce impact all bodily functions. They are vital. If you have any questions or want to pursue a path that will lead you to healthy hormones, please don’t hesitate to contact me. I can be reached here or via the website.

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Deanna Goodson, Executive Contributor Brainz Magazine

Deanna Goodson is a professional life and mental health coach, nutritional counselor, and writer. She received her coach training at Rhodes Wellness College in Canada and received an ACC credential from the International Coaching Federation in May of 2019, which was recently renewed. As a mental health coach, Deanna is well-versed in Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy, and Emotional Freedom Technique, aka Tapping. Deanna is also a graduate of the Institute of Integrative Nutrition (IIN) and has a certificate in Emotional Eating Psychology (EEP). She follows an intuitive eating approach for her clients and helps them repair their relationship with food.



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