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Did You Know That Chronic Pain Alters The Biology Of Your Brain? Learn About Central Sensitization And How To Reverse Its Effects

Mia is a certified Integrative Neuro-linguistic programming Coach specializing in chronic pain recovery. After overcoming her debilitating chronic pain through the Mind-Body approach, she became passionate about helping others achieve similar results.

Executive Contributor Mia Khalil

Chronic pain affects millions worldwide, significantly impacting quality of life. Among the lesser-known but crucial concepts in understanding some types of chronic pain is "central sensitization." This phenomenon is not just a symptom but a condition of its own, rooted deeply in the ways our nervous system processes pain.

A woman riding a bike.

What is central sensitization?

Central sensitization occurs when the central nervous system (CNS) undergoes "neural plasticity," which changes the nervous system's response to sensations. In simple terms, it makes the brain and spinal cord more responsive to pain signals, even exaggerating normal signals into painful ones. This can result from injury, inflammation, nerve damage, or even stress and emotional turmoil, leading to persistent pain that may be disproportionate to the actual cause. According to the Cleaveland Clinic: In central sensitization, the central nervous system undergoes structural, functional, and chemical changes that make it more sensitive to pain and other sensory stimuli.

The science behind the pain

The process begins when an initial injury or inflammation – caused by tissue damage in the body or by stress or repressed emotions – causes nerve cells (neurons) within the CNS to lower their threshold for pain.

This means less stimulation is needed for these neurons to send a pain signal. Additionally, these neurons can amplify normal inputs, turning gentle touches into painful experiences, a condition known as allodynia, or creating an intensified pain response, known as hyperalgesia.

Central sensitization represents a remarkable adaptability of the nervous system, albeit one that can lead to undesirable outcomes. This condition shows the body's attempt to protect itself, becoming hyper-alert to potential dangers signified by pain. Unfortunately, when these changes persist, they can contribute to various chronic pain syndromes, including fibromyalgia, migraine, and other pain disorders, often without any visible signs of injury or disease.

Central sensitilization.

Triggers and persistence

The triggers of central sensitization are multifaceted, ranging from physical injuries and surgeries to less obvious factors like stress or genetic predisposition. What’s particularly challenging with central sensitization is that it can continue even after the initial injury has healed. This ongoing pain can be baffling both to patients and to doctors, often leading to misdiagnosis or inadequate treatment. Here's a detailed look at the triggers and the complex nature of this condition:

Triggers of central sensitization

  • Physical Injuries and Surgeries: These are common triggers for central sensitization. An injury or surgical intervention can lead to prolonged periods of pain, which may cause the nervous system to become hypersensitive to pain signals.

  • Stress: Psychological stress is also a potent trigger. It can exacerbate existing pain and contribute to the development of a chronic pain condition by altering pain pathways and increasing the nervous system's sensitivity.

  • Genetic Predisposition: Genetics can play a role in an individual's susceptibility to developing chronic pain and central sensitization. Certain genetic markers may predispose individuals to heightened pain sensitivity and a prolonged pain response.

Persistence of chronic pain

  • Neurological Changes: After an injury, the nervous system can undergo structural and functional changes. Neurons might begin to respond to lower thresholds of stimulation, and this heightened sensitivity can persist, making even normal inputs painful.

  • Inflammatory Responses: Continuous or unresolved inflammation from the initial trigger can further sensitize nerve pathways, maintaining the pain cycle even after the apparent healing of the initial injury.

  • Psychological Factors: The anticipation or fear of pain can itself become a perpetuating factor. This is particularly complex because it involves both psychological and physical responses that can reinforce each other.

A woman holding a bike.

Exacerbating factors

Fear and the fear-avoidance model

The fear-avoidance model explains how individuals who fear pain may avoid activities that they suspect will cause pain, leading to decreased physical activity and increased disability. This avoidance can prevent the natural desensitization to pain that occurs through regular exposure, thereby maintaining or even increasing pain sensitivity. Additionally, chronic stress can rewire the brain, particularly areas like the amygdala and hippocampus, enhancing the emotional components of pain and making the experience of pain more intense and debilitating.

Stress and the immune system

Stress, particularly when chronic, activates the body's stress-response system, which involves the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Activation of the HPA axis leads to the release of stress hormones, primarily cortisol. While cortisol is typically anti-inflammatory, chronic stress can lead to cortisol resistance, where the body's response to the hormone diminishes, resulting in unchecked inflammation.

Nothing in life has any meaning except the meaning we give it. – Tony Robbins

Implications for treatment and recovery

Understanding the reversible nature of central sensitization has significant implications for treatment. It suggests that interventions can be designed not only to manage symptoms but also to potentially reverse the changes in the nervous system that contribute to pain. Treatments may include:

Pharmacological interventions

Medications that modulate neurotransmitter levels or block specific receptors involved in pain transmission can help reduce the sensitivity of the nervous system. While medications can play a critical role in managing chronic pain, they often come with potential risks and side effects that must be carefully considered:

  • Dependency and Addiction: Opioids, one of the most potent medications for severe pain relief, carry a high risk of dependency and addiction. Even when used as prescribed, long-term use can lead to physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

  • Tolerance: Over time, the body may develop tolerance to pain medications, particularly opioids and certain types of nerve pain treatments. This requires higher doses to achieve the same effect, increasing the risk of side effects and dependency.

  • Side Effects: Common side effects of pain medications can include gastrointestinal issues such as nausea, constipation, and ulcers; cognitive impairments like memory loss and reduced alertness; and mood alterations such as depression or anxiety. Non-opioid pain relievers, like NSAIDs, can increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney damage, especially when used long-term at high doses.

  • Masking Symptoms: Pain medications often address the symptoms of pain rather than the underlying cause. This can lead to a scenario where patients continue to use medications without engaging in therapies that address the root of their pain, potentially exacerbating their condition in the long run.

  • Drug Interactions: Many pain medications can interact with other drugs, leading to dangerous side effects. For example, combining opioids with benzodiazepines (used to treat anxiety and insomnia) can lead to severe respiratory depression and even death.

Physical therapy

Physical therapy (PT) is a cornerstone in the management of chronic pain, particularly in conditions influenced by central sensitization. It involves various techniques and modalities designed to reduce pain, improve mobility, and restore function. Because central sensitization affects individuals differently, physical therapy must be highly personalized.

  • Manual Therapy: Techniques such as massage, manipulation, and mobilization of soft tissues and joints can help reduce pain, improve circulation, and decrease muscle tension, which may be contributing to pain sensations.

  • Therapeutic Exercises: Customized exercise programs are designed to strengthen muscles, improve flexibility, and increase range of motion. These exercises help in desensitizing the nervous system to pain by gradually increasing the intensity and frequency of exercise under controlled conditions

  • Pain Education: Physical therapists often provide education on pain mechanisms, helping patients understand the biological and physiological processes behind their pain. This knowledge can demystify pain and reduce the fear and anxiety associated with it, which are known to exacerbate pain symptoms.

  • Electrical Stimulation: Techniques like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) use low-voltage electrical currents to reduce pain by interrupting or blocking the pain signals before they reach the brain.

  • Heat and Cold Therapy: The application of heat can relax and soothe muscles and heal damaged tissues, while cold therapy can reduce inflammation and numb sore tissues, providing temporary pain relief.

  • Aquatic Therapy: Water provides a supportive environment that reduces the stress on weight-bearing joints and muscles while providing resistance for strength training.

Pain Reprocessing Therapy (PRT)

Pain Reprocessing Therapy is an emerging psychological approach designed to help patients reevaluate their pain experiences, shifting their perception from threatening to non-threatening. This therapy is based on the concept that chronic pain, especially when no clear physiological cause persists, can often be maintained by psychological and emotional factors. PRT involves techniques like cognitive behavioral therapy to challenge and change harmful beliefs about pain, potentially "reprogramming" the way the brain processes pain signals. Studies have shown that PRT can significantly reduce pain levels and improve the quality of life for patients with chronic back pain and other chronic pain conditions.

Emotional Awareness and Expression Therapy (EAET) 

EAET is designed to help patients identify, express, and process emotions related to their pain or life stressors that may exacerbate their condition. This therapy recognizes that emotional suppression can contribute to physical symptoms, including pain. By facilitating emotional expression in a structured therapeutic setting, EAET aims to reduce the emotional burden and its physical manifestations. Research indicates that this approach can be particularly effective for conditions like fibromyalgia, where psychological stress plays a significant role in symptom severity.

Internal Family Systems Therapy (IFS) 

Internal Family Systems Therapy offers a unique approach to psychotherapy that involves identifying and interacting with various "parts" or sub-personalities within oneself. Each part may have its view, feelings, and memories, particularly about pain and trauma. IFS helps patients access these parts in a non-threatening way, aiming to heal internal conflicts. This can lead to significant psychological relief and may help alleviate physical symptoms of pain by resolving underlying emotional distress.

Mental and Emotional Release® Therapy (MER®) 

MER® is a therapeutic process that utilizes techniques from neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) to help individuals release emotional and mental blockages. By addressing these deep-seated blockages, MER® aims to reduce long-term emotional distress and, consequently, chronic pain. The therapy is often used to address conditions stemming from or exacerbated by emotional trauma, offering a path to recovery that might not be achieved through traditional physical therapies alone.

Hypnosis and Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP)

Hypnosis, combined with NLP, offers a powerful tool for managing chronic pain. Hypnosis induces a deep state of relaxation and suggestibility, allowing patients to modify their perceptions of pain. NLP complements this by altering the way individuals perceive, think, and communicate about their pain, which can change their behavioral responses to pain. Clinical studies have suggested that hypnosis and NLP can effectively reduce pain intensity and improve daily functioning in individuals with chronic pain syndromes.

Lifestyle changes

Regular exercise, sleep hygiene, and dietary adjustments can help reduce inflammation and improve overall body function, potentially decreasing pain sensitivity. Mindfulness and relaxation techniques can also be powerful tools in coping with the day-to-day challenges of living with chronic pain.

Educational interventions

Teaching patients about the mechanisms of pain can help demystify their experiences and reduce fear, leading to better engagement with treatment and improved outcomes.

The power of comprehensive care

Incorporating these psychological therapies into the management of central sensitization can provide a more holistic treatment plan. These methods not only focus on reducing pain perception but also address the underlying emotional and psychological factors contributing to pain. They offer tools for patients to manage stress, reframe their experience of pain, and promote long-term improvements in their quality of life.

Central sensitization connects deeply with both physiological and psychological aspects of health. Recognizing its reversibility and understanding the exacerbating role of stress and fear are vital for developing comprehensive pain management plans. By integrating medical treatments with lifestyle changes and psychological support, individuals suffering from chronic pain can find significant relief and improve their quality of life.

For anyone struggling with chronic pain, recognizing the role of central sensitization might be the first step toward finding a more effective management plan. Consultation with healthcare providers and practitioners who understand this concept can provide the necessary insights and treatment options to help manage the condition more effectively.

Your guide on the path to recovery

Having navigated the terrain of chronic pain and arrived at a place of understanding and relief, I am committed to illuminating the path for others. My approach is heart-centered, reflecting not only my healing journey but also an amalgamation of training in groundbreaking modalities including PRT, EAET, NLP, Hypnosis, MER Therapy, and more. My mission is to empower you to take ownership of your healing journey, make informed decisions, and transform your reality.

Whether the road to recovery is brief or long, the key is persistence and never ceasing to seek answers. If you're interested in how the Mind-Body approach can support your journey, I invite you to connect with me. Together, we can explore how this innovative approach can bring about your own healing narrative.


Mia Khalil, Neuro-linguistic Programming Coach

Mia is a certified Integrative Neuro-linguistic programming Coach specializing in chronic pain recovery. After overcoming her debilitating chronic pain through the Mind-Body approach, she became passionate about helping others achieve similar results. This led her to study practical neuroplasticity and the emerging mind-body revolution in chronic pain treatment, Mental and Emotional Release® Therapy, Breakthrough Therapy, Hypnosis, and other therapeutic modalities. Mia founded her own holistic coaching practice to help people reclaim their power, overcome their limitations, eliminate pain, and live a life of freedom, joy, health, and well-being. Her mission: Create a free world.



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