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Voodoo In Benin – Unraveling The Mystery Of This Sacred Tradition

Dr. Asanee Brogan is a seasoned spiritual coach who specializes in African spirituality, the Ifá tradition, and Voodoo. She is the founder of Asanee 44 LLC, the author of African Spirituality for Beginners and similar books, and the host of the African Spirit Reintegrated + Reimagined podcast.

Executive Contributor Dr. Asanee Brogan

Benin is a country rich in ancient traditions and mystical beliefs. It serves as a historical portal for African spiritual customs worldwide. Nestled in West Africa, Benin is renowned for its vibrant and diverse spiritual practices passed down through generations. At the heart of Benin’s spiritual landscape lies Voodoo or Vodoun, one of the most intriguing religions in this land.

Voodoo in Benin Unraveling the Mystic of this Sacred Tradition

Voodoo, often misunderstood and misrepresented, holds immense significance in Beninese society. It encompasses rituals, ceremonies, and beliefs that honor ancestral spirits and deities. Through intricate dances, rhythmic drumming, and symbolic offerings, practitioners seek guidance from and connection with these powerful entities.

However, Benin’s spiritual traditions involve practices other than voodoo. The country is home to various West African spiritual practices belonging to various tribes and ethnic groups. Though they are very similar in scope and nature to the widely known voodoo traditions in the nation.

Historical roots of voodoo in Benin

The Dahomey Kingdom existed from the 17th to the late 19th century in the southern part of present-day Benin. It played a significant role in the development of Benin’s spiritual traditions. The kingdom had a highly organized and centralized system of government with intricate religious components. Its spiritual heritage consisted of the veneration of ancestors and various deities, contributing to the establishment of Vodoun as a major religious tradition.

Today, Voodoo is one of the most well-known and widely practiced traditional African religions in this region. It has its roots in the Fon and Yoruba cultures that inhabited the historical Dahomey Kingdom. Various tribal groups, such as the Bori, Gan, Fulani, Mina, Somba, etc., maintained their traditions. In many instances, these practices still exist in Benin, as they were only slightly influenced by colonial rule.

However, the transatlantic slave trade led to the dispersion of African people and their traditions to the New World. Of course, this included the export of voodoo to the Americas, particularly to Haiti and Louisiana state in the US. These diasporic communities preserved and adapted their African religious practices. This led to the development of Haitian Vodou and Louisiana Voodoo, which are primary syncretic traditions still practiced today. This is one reason Voodoo is one of the most well-known traditional practices in Benin.

Exploring the pantheon of deities in Benin voodoo

Central to voodoo are the deities and spirits revered and worshipped by its followers. These powerful entities play a vital role in the daily lives of practitioners, offering guidance, protection, and healing. Each deity possesses unique characteristics and abilities, representing different aspects of life, such as love, fertility, wisdom, or justice.

Many of the deities within the Vodoun pantheon in Benin mirror those of popular spiritual traditions such as the Ifa religion in Nigeria and Voodoo from Haiti and Louisiana. These traditions came from Benin migrant groups that later inhabited Nigeria. Also, some of the individuals from these groups were later brought to the Western world and forced into slavery. This is the primary reason there is a lot of overlap between the deities.

Let’s examine some of the prominent spirits from this region to gain a better understanding of how they influenced the region:


Mawu-Lisa is a unique concept, representing dual-natured beings possessing masculine and feminine energies. This duality symbolizes the harmonious interplay between opposing forces necessary for the delicate balance required for creation to flourish. This spiritual entity is often venerated in many traditions throughout West Africa, including Benin.

According to one creation narrative surrounding Mawu-Lisa, they emerged from the primordial chaos and embarked on a grand cosmic journey. Together, they shaped and molded the world, bringing order out of chaos with their divine touch. Mawu-Lisa’s actions were guided by wisdom and intuition, ensuring that every aspect of existence was carefully crafted.


Known for his ability to bridge the gap between different worlds, Legba, also referred to as Esu, plays a vital role in facilitating communication between humans and spiritual forces. Legba is often depicted as an intermediary figure positioned at the crossroads where the physical and spiritual realms converge. As the gatekeeper, he holds the key to unlocking hidden knowledge and wisdom beyond our mortal existence. This spirit also exists in many traditions in West Africa and throughout the diaspora.


Damballah-Wedo is revered as the primordial serpent deity associated with creation, fertility, and wisdom. Often depicted as a serpent or as a serpent with the image of a rainbow, Damballah-Wedo embodies the cycles of life, death, and rebirth. As a benevolent and nurturing spirit, offerings of eggs and white items are made to Damballah-Wedo.


Ayizan is the patron spirit of initiation, commerce, and herbal medicine. She is depicted as a market woman or as a woman with a palm frond, symbolizing her connection to trade and fertility. Ayizan plays a crucial role in Voodoo ceremonies, particularly those involving initiation rites. During such rituals, she imparts knowledge and guidance to initiates.

Erzulie Freda

In many iterations of voodoo, Erzulie Freda is the embodiment of love, beauty, and femininity. Often depicted as a beautiful and elegant woman adorned with jewelry and flowers, she represents the essence of love and sensuality. Devotees invoke her for matters of the heart, seeking her guidance in romance, relationships, and emotional healing.

Rituals and ceremonies

Voodoo rituals are vibrant and multifaceted, encompassing a diverse range of practices such as drumming, dancing, chanting, and spirit possession. Ceremonies are conducted by highly respected priests and priestesses. These individuals serve as intermediaries between the human and spiritual realms.

The sacred drum

Drumming is perhaps one of the most integral components of Voodoo rituals. This activity serves as a rhythmic pulse that connects participants with the spiritual energies of the universe. The beat of the drums reverberates through the sacred space, summoning spirits, inducing trance states, and guiding participants on a transformative journey.

The essence of dance

Dancing is another essential element of Voodoo ceremonies, allowing participants to embody the movements and gestures of the spirits. Dance serves as a form of communication with the divine, conveying prayers, petitions, and expressions of devotion. Through intricate choreography and spontaneous movements, dancers channel the power of the spirits, transcending the boundaries between the earthly and spiritual realms.

Words of invocation

Chanting often accompanies drumming and dancing, filling the air with melodic incantations and invocations. Incantations are often sung in traditional languages or dialects, carrying the ancient wisdom and power of the ancestors. These sacred songs serve to elevate consciousness, focus intention, and create a harmonious resonance that attracts the attention of the spirits.

The power of trance

Spirit possession is a central aspect of many Voodoo rituals, wherein participants become vessels for the manifestation of divine energies. During possession, individuals may undergo profound alterations in consciousness, exhibiting behaviors and mannerisms characteristic of the spirits they host. Possession is not seen as a loss of control but rather as a sacred union between the human and spiritual realms, allowing for direct communication and communion with the divine.

Misconceptions and realities

The sensationalization and stigmatization of Voodoo in popular culture and media have perpetuated harmful misconceptions and stereotypes. Sadly, such imagery portrays this ancient spiritual tradition in a negative light. Often depicted as dark, malevolent, or associated with black magic, these misrepresentations have led to discrimination and prejudice against Voodoo practitioners. However, such portrayals fail to capture the true essence of Voodoo and its healing power.

In reality, Voodoo is a complex and multifaceted belief system that promotes values of harmony, balance, and reverence for nature. At its core, Voodoo embodies a deep respect for the interconnectedness of all living beings and the natural world. It recognizes the inherent spiritual essence that permeates every aspect of existence. Far from being sinister or malevolent, Voodoo emphasizes the importance of maintaining spiritual equilibrium and cultivating positive relationships with the divine, ancestors, and spirits.

Even more, Voodoo places a strong emphasis on social cohesion, mutual support, and communal responsibility. Traditional healers and spiritual leaders play vital roles in providing guidance, counsel, and healing to their communities. These individuals address physical, emotional, and spiritual ailments with compassion and wisdom. Also, voodoo ceremonies serve as occasions for social gatherings and celebrations. This tradition reinforces bonds among participants and fosters a sense of belonging and identity.


Benin, a country rich in ancient traditions and mystical beliefs, serves as a historical portal for African spiritual customs worldwide. At its heart lies Voodoo or Vodoun, one of the most intriguing religions in this land, often misunderstood and misrepresented. Rooted in the historical Dahomey Kingdom, Voodoo encompasses rituals, ceremonies, and beliefs that honor ancestral spirits and deities.

Though Benin boasts diverse spiritual practices, Voodoo holds immense significance, its pantheon of deities reflecting a harmonious interplay between opposing forces. From Mawu-Lisa, embodying dual-natured creation, to Legba, the bridge between worlds, each spirit plays a vital role in guiding and protecting practitioners.

Voodoo rituals, conducted by respected priests and priestesses, are vibrant expressions of connection with the divine. Despite misconceptions perpetuated by popular culture, Voodoo promotes values of harmony, balance, and reverence for nature, fostering social cohesion and community support. It’s a tradition that preserves ancient wisdom and inspires compassion, understanding, and respect for the diversity of the human experience.

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Dr. Asanee Brogan, Spiritual Coach

Drawing from her deep-rooted practice in the Ifá tradition and Haitian Vodou, Dr. Asanee develops multifaceted resources, enriching her clients' understanding of African spirituality. Her commitment to sharing her evolving expertise involves coaching, writing, teaching, and mentorship. She is the founder and CEO of Asanee 44 LLC, a platform dedicated to integrating individuals into African traditional religions.



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